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TITLE OF PAPER
Towards a multidisciplinary optimization of a body in white including whole vehicle crashworthiness load cases: The complexity of automated evaluation shown on the example of a beam cross member
There are several reasons why parameter optimization, even in a single disciplinary content, is not yet part of the standard process for crashworthiness simulation in the automotive product development process. The most obvious reason is, that the assessment of a crashworthiness simulation is often based on a combination of hard restrictions, such as displacement values, passenger acceleration and so on and soft criteria, such as beam kinematics. Those soft criteria get evaluated visually based on engineering experience and have failed being formalized up to now. With the example of a beam cross member from the ARENA2036 project lightweight through integrated functions it is shown how the evaluation is done nowadays. Those evaluations contain patterns which will be used to formalize the soft criteria and automate the evaluation process within a CAE simulation chain.
Effective toolchain for the model based development of an EUVI exhaust aftertreatment system
Arne Kuhlmann, BASF Catalysts Germany GmbH
Today the global automotive industry faces enormous challenges from A1:R81 tightening emission legislations. Regulatory differences between European, Asian and American markets and segments enhance complexity while OEMs are constantly seeking to reduce development cycle times.
Consequently, there is continuous demand for increasingly efficient strategies to develop cost efficient solutions. BASF, as a leading global catalyst supplier, was approached by a commercial truck manufacturer to improve cost and performance of the current EUVI production exhaust aftertreatment system. Due to a very demanding timeline, the only strategic option to design suitable system proposals and to demonstrate performance under customer specific test conditions was by utilizing simulation techniques.
An effective model based development toolchain was developed building upon BASF proprietary exhaust models for accurate emission prediction complemented by modeFRONTIER for multidimensional optimization purposes. Using parallel computing, the simulation of stationary and transient tests for 500 catalytic system designs was completed within two weeks. All customer targets were met and suitable prototype candidates identified.
MAGNA Powertrain - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG
Fatigue assessment of multi-axially loaded elastomeric components using load discretization and channel based fatigue method
Stefan Kaindl, MAGNA Powertrain - Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG
A new method for predicting the fatigue strength of multi-axially loaded elastomeric components was implemented. The method is based on the local S/N curves concept which basically compares local stresses with material-specific strength values. The nonlinear characteristics of the elastomeric material are measured from specimens. An appropriate material model is chosen to simulate correct deformations and resulting local stresses. Additionally fatigue strength parameters like mean stress influence are defined for the fatigue analysis. Finally, investigations on a commercial vehicle engine mount under multi-axial load are shown as an application and verification of the simulation method. The analysis shows good agreement with test bench results.
Development of new metallic rear crash boxes to replace a plastic one for a passenger car
Levent Aksel, TOFAS | İbrahim Ozbay, TOFAS
This study includes a development of metallic rear crash box in order to replace plastic one for a passenger car. New developed crash box should pass low speed and high speed tests in order to meet the required performance for its market. During this study the greatest difficulty that we have is to have the required performance in AZT analysis. Since force-displacement behaviour of honeycomb shaped plastics grow up gradually and absorb the energy uniformly without exceeding the maximum force limit not to have plastic deformations on BIW, having the same performance for this analysis with metallic components is quite hard. Because metallic crash boxes have a reaction force very steep in the beginning which tends to decrease afterwards due to the hinge effect of metals. In order to get rid of this disadvantage of metals, another smaller and shorter metallic crash box is used inside to get an energy absorbtion gradually and uniformly without having hinge effect. In this way, during crash rigid barrier has a contact with outer crash box and before having the hinge effect it reaches another crash box inside. This results in a uniform reaction force curve without reaching high values.
Typical designs in structural applications undergo complex loading. In order to accurately predict
the behavior of complex structures accurate representation of loads is required. Traditional
methods of obtaining loads involve specialized load transducers and / or modification of
structures to be sensitive to specific components of load. Presented in this paper is an alternative
approach to load measurement which leverages FEA in conjunction with a physical sample to produce an n-Dimensional load transducer. Experimental verification is presented showing the correlation between measured and FEA strain calculation.
Topology Optimization with Enforced Patterns and Applications for Additive Manufacturing
Traditional topology optimization is used by designers and engineers to generate free and often organic looking designs. These designs in some cases are possible to manufacture while in others it is not possible for either practical or esthetic reasons. For the cases where it is not possible to manufacture it is now possible to impose fabrication constraints to deal with that, for example: casting constraints can be used to allow the fabrication with molds and dies and/or the use of symmetric constraints to get aesthetically pleasant designs. Today, additive manufacturing processes are becoming more and more popular. These processes together with 3D printers are used to print lattice structures. Lattice Structures sometimes occur naturally in topology optimization but in other times they are not. For the cases where lattice are not naturally generated we can force the topology optimization process to generate them. In this paper we discuss how to enforce topology patterns to get final topology result to match certain desirable shapes that can be both easier to manufacture and/or to enforce a design requirement. The methods presented are implemented in GENESIS structural optimization software.
Estimation of Reliability and Recent Progress of Particle Method MPS
Particle method is one of powerful technique on numerical simulation to treat complex engineering problems in the manufacturing industries. In general, particle method is classified as mesh free method and used for the problems on which application of conventional mesh-based CFD software is difficult. Particle-based simulation software Particleworks adopts one of major particle method MPS (Moving Particle Simulation) and has been used widely in production design and development. Especially, Particleworks is used for the simulation of oil flow and lubrication in power train (engine blocks, gear boxes, and so on) and wading/flooded road driving in automotive industry. However, MPS is a relatively new numerical method and the accuracy and the error estimation of this method should be investigated to obtain reliable results through the simulation. For this purpose, numerical verification of MPS method is discussed using simple examples in this presentation. And new features implemented in the latest version of Particleworks are introduced.
ACP-OpDesign, Optimal Design Gateway: Reveal the path to optimized products
ACP OpDesign, is an intuitive and process guided optimization desktop environment. With its optimization oriented and highly specialized user interface, based on the process depicted as a diagram in the tool, it offers to the user the capability to take advantage of an efficient, direct interaction to:
- ANSA’s powerful morphing and parametrization functionality,
- custom designed META Post-processor tools,
- Topology and parametric optimization Software,
- FEA solvers
ACP OpDesign features a list of tools designed and developed in the context of actual optimization projects.
Following step-by-step the various phases of the ACP process, these tools and capabilities of the software (ACP-OpDesign, ANSA and META) are demonstrated by means of examples.
Starting from a product design space, we apply various loads for a topology optimization analysis. The results are interpreted and transformed into a low fidelity model, which is then validated under the same loads.
It is then parametrized regarding its geometry (3D shape, position, cross section), its material and thickness, and a parametric optimization takes place. The results of this analysis are post-processed and evaluated.
This full presentation is not available
1D automotive cooling system simulation: from Internal Combustion Engine to Battery Electrical Vehicles
Development of more and more efficient Internal Combustion Engine cars has been supporting in the last decades by extensive simulations. Most notably, both engine combustion and performances studies were influenced by availability of 1d simulation codes, whose capabilities were extended to take care of vehicles cooling systems.
At the beginning of 21th century a new competition in transportation market is rising between Internal Combustion Engine and Electrical Engine vehicles: car manufacturers need now additional knowledge to handle different thermal behavior of electrical and fuel tractions. A comparison study is performed to translate classical engine cooling 1d simulation models into suitable models to investigate Battery Electric Vehicle behaviour, underline similarities and differences, lay down model set up rules and suggest future improvements.
Multibody modelling of Automatic Transmission vehicles seat-rail idle vibrations
Elena Salino, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Gabriella Lombardi, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Stefano Pizzuto, FCA Italy S.p.A. | Nicola Poerio, Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A. | Maurizio Urbinati, Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A.
Torque Converters allow automatic transmission vehicles to stop while the engine is still running without stalling.
The variable torque multiplication they perform is maximum in Idle and then progressively converges to the unity as the vehicle speed increases.
Potentially, the driveline may be isolated from the Idling torque in Drive/Reverse by means of the Neutral Idle Control (NIC), but its use may be incompatible with specific performances, primarily breakaway acceleration.
When no NIC is applied, the harmonic content of torque acting on the half-shafts, depending on the characteristics of the ICE, may couple with some natural frequencies (mainly of Powertrain, Unsprung Masses and Body) causing resonance phenomena.
In order to predict a similar behaviour, a specific simulation environment for ATx in Idle was realized using MSC ADAMS/MB Sharc software. The tool was tested on a 4-cylinder LCV application, returning good levels of correlation with experimental seat-rail vibrations.
Creation of a Scilab Tool for Random Fatigue Vibration Analysis
Anthony Bidault, Pierburg Pump Technology
A simple calculation tool was developed, using SciLab language, to analyse and verify a mechanical component subjected to a PSD acceleration spectrum.
The validation of the resulting code was performed by means of two test cases, both analysed with the SciLAb code and with nCode Design Life, which is a commercial tool, embedded within Ansys Workbench suite. These verifications were done taking into account the same model parameters (material, mesh, size, critical nodes), in order to verify only the developed code.
The results were very promising, showing a good correlation between the results of both methods, for all of the analysed components.
Constrained Geometric Parameterization by Mesh Morphing for a Catamaran Foils Optimization Procedure
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" | Alberto Clarich, ESTECO | Francesco Franchini, EnginSoft
Finding an efficient solution to the problem of parameterizing highly constrained geometric configurations is a challenging task. Aspects related to robustness requirements, furthermore, acquire additional importance when the model is developed for a CAE based numerical optimization environment. In such a scenario, a common solution is to couple a parametric CAD model with a remeshing procedure. In this work, a mesh morphing approach based on Radial Basis Functions is proposed. The objective is to demonstrate its capability in implementing a complex constrained geometric parameterization highlighting the several advantages it offers in comparison to a standard CAD driven strategy. With this aim, a pilot study has been developed focusing on a particularly demanding problem: the optimization of A-Class catamaran foils. The proposed procedure led to identify a solution able to significantly improve the performance of the baseline geometry both in upwind and downwind sailing conditions.
Predictive Maintenance for bus fleets: a lesson from the EBSF_2 project
Maria Vittoria Corazza, DICEA – Dept. of Civil Engineering Sapienza University of Rome | Enrico Petracci, Pluservice srl | Silvia Magnalardo, Pluservice | Michele Tozzi, UITP - International Association of Public Transport Brussels
The paper deals with an innovative Predictive Maintenance (PdM) system to assess the quality of the engine oil for buses, tested in Ravenna within the European Bus System of the Future - EBSF_2 project, funded by the European Union. The system relies on a PdM software linked to oil sensors and filters, installed on a test fleet, and on an IT architecture, specifically designed. The system enables a continuous assessment of the oil quality, which is highly predictive of the engine performance, thus detecting potential breakdowns and planning the replacement of spare parts ahead of regular schedules; the system also detects which substances and problems cause the poor quality of the oil. The paper describes the system and its IT architecture, the testing scenarios, the performance assessment, and the main outcomes. Thus far, results are encouraging and enable an assessment of additional, potential environmental benefits (especially mitigation of emissions toxicity and improvement of waste management). Such results are analysed and commented with the research objective to provide advanced knowledge for further research studies beyond EBSF_2
CAE investigation of a motorbike powertrain's NVH behavior
A multibody model was generated to simulate the dynamic behavior of the full powertrain system of a motorbike.
The model was used to assess the efficiency of design modifications conceived to improve the powertrain's NVH performance.
The model includes the cranktrain, the gearbox, the rear transmission system and a simulacrum of the vehicle. Nonlinear components are present, such as rubber shock absorbers. Flexible bodies are included, described according to the Craig-Bampton technique.
The whole model is subject to the pressure time-histories in the combustion chambers. Detailed gear-to-gear interfaces are included, to simulate dynamic contact conditions.
The simulated maneuvers are clutch engagement/disengagement cycles, which can induce external noise. Different designs were simulated as for the geometry of the secondary gears, to try to reduce the impact energy which induces surface vibrations of the gearbox, which in turn provokes the external noise.
The quantity used to rank the designs was the RMS value of the torque transmitted through hooke joints in the rear part of the transmission system. This quantity allows a more robust ranking of the designs when compared with the use of impact forces, which are more subject to numeric noise. Besides that, test data are available for the torque, so a test/model comparison could be carried out.
The model was also used to assess the efficiency of a dynamic shock absorber, whose operation is based on the combined effect of cams and springs. The characterization of some springs required non linear FEM simulations, due to the lack of test data. The above mentioned torque RMS value has been used to assess the shock absorber efficiency too.
The model was generated using a template-based software; the resulting modular structure of the model will allow re-uses of its subsystems for different purposes, e.g., assessment of the structural performance of engine components under durability bench tests.
Having investigated the noise source via the MBS model, FEM analyses were carried out to evaluate the transmission properties of different crankcase configurations. The results were weighted with a loudness index specifically conceived from the ISO equal-loudness curves.
Integrated CAE analysis for automotive DEF systems
New and more severe requirements for diesel emission can be satisfied using an additive in the exhaust system. It is called DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) and is basically a water solution of urea that, through precise injection just before a dedicated catalyst converter, can reduce nitrogen oxide emission. An important step of the system implementation is the design and CAE validation of the tank and filling nozzle for DEF. In FCA this task was accomplished with a combined use of simulation tools and methodologies that are partly derived from experience on fuel system and partly novel. They cover all main performances: basic functional assessment is performed with geometric analysis; non-linear structural FEM covers pressure and vibration loads for the vehicle lifespan; finally two-phase CFD allows tank filling performance analysis. This combination allowed to greatly speed up design phases and reduce uncertainties.
Increasing passive safety performances using an automatic CAE methodology
Laura Iannetti, Beta CAE Srl
In the automotive industry, safety requirements are more and more stringent leading to engineering challenges in finding the best tradeoff
between crashworthiness performances, structure weight, design and production costs. The goal of the activity is to develop an automatic optimization work flow
for a car door. The final objective is to fulfill the safety requirements and obtain the best rating in the pole test. For this purpose, the door geometry
has been parameterized by means of the morphing tool available in ANSA. All the crashworthiness performances were investigated with LS-Dyna. The work flow has been efficiently handled by modeFRONTIER which manages also the definition of all the designs of experiment (DOEs),taking into account a variety of algorithms. Both geometrical modifications and
material characteristics’ variations play an important role in how the impact energy is absorbed by the door and, therefore, how the passenger safety can or cannot be guaranteed. The methodology developed in this work provide not only an effective improvement of the car door design in terms of passenger passive safety, but also a robust and reliable procedure which can be applied on similar cases.
LINCOSIM: a Web App for Automatic Hull Design on HPC Platforms
Francesco Salvadore, CINECA | Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
In this work, we present an innovative web application dedicated to the design process of planing hulls by means of CFD runs. The LINCOSIM web application is developed within the EU funded project LINCOLN (http://www.lincolnproject.eu/).
LINCOLN is an EU Horizon 2020 research project of 36 month duration (1st October 2016 – 30th September 2019, Grant Agreement No 727982) using innovative design methodologies and tools for the development of three types of completely new vessels concepts through dynamic simulation model testing in the maritime sector.
The web user interface includes expressive WebGL 3D visualizations and allows to prepare, start and analyze the simulations starting from the hull geometry and a few physical parameters, the web services automatically managing the interaction with computing machines.
The CFD undergoing engine is developed using OpenFOAM enabling to solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equation including dynamic mesh motion (free sink and trim) in a cost/effective way.
The preliminary results in terms of repetability, usability and robustness are encouraging; a full set of validation test to assess accuracy are ongoing.
Simplified optimization methodologies for complex geometries: application to an automotive duct system
Marco Maganzi, University of Pisa
In automotive design, new optimization procedures, which can improve system internal aerodynamics, are needed. In this field of application, the challenge is to avoid the typical complicate geometry parameterisation and to modify the shape complaining with space constraints.
In this paper two simplified optimization processes, with the aim of increase HVAC system efficiency, by means of reducing ducts total pressure drop and increase outlet flow uniformity, are shown. The first one is driven by ANSA® optimisation tool and consists in generating many new duct designs, using the ANSA mesh morphing tool and to soving the flow with ANSYS Fluent®. The second one uses ANSYS Fluent adjoint solver.
The final procedure couples both the methodologies in order to obtain a more efficient and faster methodology. This optimization method is applied to a real car system duct. The results of the optimised procedures are examined and compared with the original one, showing an impressive reduction in the pressure drop and improvement in flow quality.
Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division
Virtual Development of a crank mechanism for a Moto GP engine using latest modeling techniques
Gianluca Calli, Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division | Davide Barana, Ducati Motor Holding s.p.a. - Ducati Corse Division | Pietro Bianchi, Leonardo Engineers for Integration S.r.l.
High performance engines need to ensure a high specific power together with lightweight and reliability. The reduced time available from design to practical usage often restricts the experimental tests. The result is that numerical simulations are frequently the only step between a CAD geometry and the real part working on track.
For this reason a new version of a motorcycle engine’s crankshaft has been calculated with the co-simulation between the two software Ricardo Engdyn and Valdyn. The former has been used to simulate the dynamics of cranktrain and cylinder block, the latter to simulate the drive line and timing. In fact, because of the motorcycle lay-out, the primary gear and all the transmission until the brake of the test bench need to be modelled.
The final result is the determination of the safety factors in the crankshaft’s main and pin fillets. The most complete FEM stress analysis integrated in Engdyn has been used.
Warpage minimization of structural component with glass fiber reinforced polymer by using HRS’s FlexFlow technology: a practical case
Nicola Pavan, Inglass Spa
Weight reduction and metal replacement are two of the biggest trends of transportation industry which led to larger use of plastic reinforced materials in injection moulding processes. These trends involve several components but mainly large structural parts which highlight some critical aspects related to part geometry and functionality: tolerances and assembly, strength and weld lines management.
Complete control of deflection and weld lines are the key points for successful moulding of these components. HRS’s FlexFlow solution provide wider flexibility in controlling polymer behaviour in cavity helping to easily manage these aspects.
In this study different simulations have been compared using both controlled valve pin technology and standard sequential settings. Then results have been compared with production components too.
Shape optimization of 3d printed high performances automotive parts
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, RBF Morph srl, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" | Ubaldo Cella, Design Methods | Marco Ponzi, HSL srl
3d printing has recently grown from a niche technology useful for prototyping into a standard manufacturing process suitable for mainstream applications. New challenges are posed to fully exploit the high flexibility offered and CAE plays a crucial role as new design concepts are required. In the near future thanks to advanced 3d solutions also new product can be imagined and produced including mechatronic systems and computational distributed intelligence.
Novel workflow that strongly integrate the physics of the part with its shape are available and the realization of stress or flow sculpted parts is now possible also. In the framework of the Fortissimo Project HSL and RBF Morph have demonstrated this concept with a pilot study conducted for Lamborghini on specific High Performance Car Components. The engine airbox of the high performance Aventador car has been redefined by shape optimization and manufactured by 3d printing gaining an increment of performance of 3.5%. Advanced mesh morphing by RBF Morph, high fidelity CFD and FEM are key enablers of the joint vision herein presented.
This full presentation is not available
Carlo Augusto Pasquinucci
University of Genova
A fast optimization algorithm based on sparse free form deformation and surrogate surfaces for greener ship design
This project would show a methodology that can reduce the number of designs required for optimization improving its democratization. The framework is created connecting a parametric CAD Software CAESES, a commercial BEM Solver ShipFlow, a free optimizer DAKOTA and some Python scripts.
It begins with an exploration phase of different hull geometries calculating some geometrical coefficients and the resistance at different speeds.
Then, a surrogate surface is created between these coefficients and the resistance. This surface is now independent from the original design variables: different deformations can now by applied.
A Sparse Free Form Deformation can now be used for the optimization phase.
The number of design variables is kept lower as possible, increasing their number only once the best designs possible with that set are reached: no time or computational power is lost for very detailed variations in the first phases, but the accuracy of the deformation follows the design performance increasing.